In What Way Was Maryland Different From The Other English Colonies?
Review Questions – 1. Maryland was founded by
- James Oglethorpe
- Roger Williams
- Anne Hutchinson
- Cecil Calvert
2. Maryland was founded as a haven for
3. One major result of the English Civil War was
- the execution of King Charles I by Parliament
- the placement of a Catholic on the throne of England
- the pope’s control of the Anglican church
- the execution of key Puritans such as Oliver Cromwell
4. Maryland’s Act of Toleration in 1649 did which of the following?
- Protected the free practice of all religions in Maryland
- Protected the free practice of all sects of Christianity in Maryland
- Required all non-Christians to pay a tax to practice their religion in Maryland
- Ensured Puritan rule of Maryland for the next forty years
5. From 1649 to 1660, the rule of England under Oliver Cromwell
- was based upon Puritan beliefs and discrimination against Catholics
- granted religious freedom to all Christians in England
- tolerated non-Puritans
- reduced religious tensions in England and Ireland
6. As a result of the Glorious Revolution in England in 1689, what action was taken in Maryland?
- Slavery was banned in the colony.
- The Act of Toleration was revoked.
- Virginia conquered Maryland and took possession of the Chesapeake Bay.
- All Catholic landholders were forced to forfeit their possessions.
7. Who came to the throne of England as a result of the Glorious Revolution in 1689?
- King James II
- Oliver Cromwell
- William and Mary
- Charles I
8. Which of the following documents set colonial America on a path toward religious freedom, which later became a cornerstone of U.S. democracy?
- Mayflower Compact
- “City Upon A Hill” sermon by John Winthrop
- “Sinners in The Hands of an Angry God” sermon by Jonathan Edwards
- Maryland’s Act of Toleration
9. Which of the following statements about colonial Maryland is most accurate?
- Although Maryland started as a haven for Catholics, Protestants quickly became the majority.
- Maryland became the first colony to outlaw the use of slave and indentured labor.
- Maryland’s economy was based on subsistence farming and the shipbuilding industry.
- Maryland merged politically with the colony of Virginia during the English Civil War.
- 0.1 How was Maryland a different type of English colony?
- 0.2 How was Maryland different from the other Southern colonies?
- 0.3 In what way was Maryland different from the other English colonies Maryland was founded on behalf of Roman Catholic colonists Maryland was the only?
- 1 In what ways was Maryland different than Virginia?
- 1.1 How did the English Colonize America?
- 1.2 What is Maryland known for in history?
- 1.3 What was Maryland known for in the Southern colonies?
- 1.4 How did the English colonies of the Chesapeake Virginia and Maryland differ from those in New England?
How was Maryland a different type of English colony?
Maryland – The colony In 1608 the English explorer Capt. sailed into and stayed for several weeks to map the shoreline. With reference to the countryside around the bay, Smith exclaimed, “Heaven and earth seemed never to have agreed better to frame a place for man’s habitation.” In 1632 Cecilius Calvert was granted a charter for the land as a in which his fellow Roman Catholics might escape the restrictions placed on them in England.
- The first governor of the,, the younger brother of Cecilius, landed the founding expedition on St.
- Clements Island in the lower Potomac in March 1634.
- The first settlement and capital was St.
- Marys City.
- Aware of the mistakes made by first colonists, Maryland’s settlers, rather than hunt for gold, made peace with the local Native Americans and established farms and trading posts, at first on the shores and islands of the lower Chesapeake.
The field hands included indentured labourers working off the terms of their passage and, after about 1639, African slaves. The most important crop was tobacco. Roads and towns were few, and contact with the English-model manor houses was largely by water.
- The Calvert family provided for religious freedom in the colony, and this was formalized by the General Assembly in 1649 in an Act Concerning Religion, later famous as the Act of Religious Toleration.
- It granted freedom of worship, though only within the bounds of Trinitarian Christianity.
- One of the earliest laws of religious liberty, it was limited to Christians and repealed in 1692.
Commercial disputes with Anglican Virginia and boundary quarrels with Quaker Pennsylvania and Delaware did not affect this tolerance. ascendancy in England (1648–60) caused only brief turmoil. A 1689 rebellion by Protestants overthrew the officers, leading to an interval of crown rule in the royal colony of Maryland (1692–1715).
- During that period the was formally established.
- In 1715 Maryland once again became a proprietary colony of the Calverts, who had converted to Protestantism.
- Maryland nonetheless remained a haven for dissidents from sectarian rigidity in other colonies.
- By the 1660s the Protestant majority in Maryland came to resent the colony’s Roman Catholic leadership in St.
Marys City. As the population centre shifted to the north and west, the capital was moved to Protestant-dominated Anne Arundel Town (now Annapolis) in 1694. In 1729 Baltimore was founded. Maryland’s dominant “country party” early resisted British efforts to make the colonies bear more of the costs of government.
Frederick county the in 1765, and in 1774, the year after the, a ship loaded with tea was burned at an Annapolis dock. The long-standing dispute between Maryland and over their common border was settled in 1767 when Great Britain recognized 39°43′ N as the legal boundary. The boundary was named the for its surveyors.
Thereafter, this line came to be regarded as the traditional division between the North and the South. Marylanders took an active part in the, Maryland is sometimes called the “Old Line State” in honour of the Maryland troops who served with Gen. Among the most-reliable troops in the Continental Army, they were often given difficult tasks; called them “The Maryland Line.” The, often on the move to avoid British troops, spent a winter in Baltimore.
- At the close of the war, it in Annapolis, where it accepted Washington’s resignation from the army and ratified the Treaty of Paris (1783), which acknowledged the independence of the colonies.
- Postwar problems included the of confiscated loyalist property, the struggle for paper money, and debtor relief.
Maryland’s controversy with Virginia over the use of the Potomac and lower Chesapeake Bay, resulting in the Compact of 1785, led toward the (1787), as did the of 1786, at which Maryland was not represented. distinguished himself as a representative of Maryland at the Convention.
Maryland ratified the on April 28, 1788, the seventh state to do so. It also ceded territory and advanced money for public buildings to help form the (1791). When harassment on the and other factors brought on the, s, sailing as privateers, dealt more than equal punishment to British ships. In 1814 the British troops who had burned the principal government buildings in Washington, D.C., were repulsed in their attempts to inflict similar punishment on Baltimore.
, a Georgetown lawyer and an eyewitness to the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British in Baltimore’s harbour, wrote the four eight-line stanzas that, set to existing music, became the, “,” in 1931. With peace, Maryland and the rest of the concentrated on making improvements in transport and communication.
The, or National Road, the first road to cross the, was completed to, Virginia (later West Virginia), in 1818. In 1828 workers began construction on the first U.S. passenger railroad, the, and on the, from Washington to Cumberland. The following year, the, long under construction across the northern part of the, was completed.
It connected the to Chesapeake Bay. The country’s first intercity telegraph line was constructed between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore in 1843–44. In 1845 the U.S. Naval Academy was founded on the in Annapolis. The Civil War, however, arrested Maryland’s progress.
Landed gentry and residents of the Eastern Shore supported the secessionist South, while workingmen and western Marylanders stood up for the Union; a third faction favoured neutrality. In 1861 federal troops occupied Baltimore and Annapolis, and was imposed in this border state. Confederate armies mounted three major invasions of Maryland territory in successive summers; they were checked at, they met full defeat at, Pennsylvania, and their threat to Washington, D.C., was dissipated in 1864.
The constitution of 1864 abolished slavery and removed power from the rural, The more-cautious constitution of 1867 remains in force. : Maryland – The colony
How was Maryland different from the other Southern colonies?
How was Maryland different from other Southern Colonies? Many Southern Colonies were started for business reasons, but Maryland was founded for religious reasons.
In what way was Maryland different from the other English colonies Maryland was founded on behalf of Roman Catholic colonists Maryland was the only?
In what way was Maryland different from the other English colonies? Maryland was founded on behalf of Roman catholic colonists. What defines a proprietorship in the middle colonies? A proprietorship was formed when a king granted land to an individual in exchange for a share of future profits.
In what ways was Maryland different than Virginia?
Why was England slow to establish New World colonies? They were not that interested to compete with the Spanish in establishing colonies. Religious conflicts such as the Protestant Reformation also kept the English busy for many years. What steps from 1575-1600 brought England closer to colonizing the New world? The English started to realize that colonization was important and started competing with the Spanish.
- The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 allowed for the blossoming of England and the downfall of Spain, with the English having acquired many of the traits the Spanish had had about a century before.
- Explain how conditions in England around 1600 made it “ripe” to colonize North America.
- Many things had improved in England to start colonization such as peace with Spain, major population growth which would provide workers, and joint-stock companies would help to regulate the economy.
Give at least three reasons that so many of the Jamestown settlers died. Disease, malnutrition, and starvation were a few reasons that caused the deaths of so many Jamestown settlers. What factors led to the poor relations between Europeans and Native Americans in Virginia? The natives served no real purpose for the Virginians, they did nothing with the economy and were only using up the valuable land the Europeans wanted to have.
The Anglo-Powhatan Wars showed how the Europeans found the natives useless and were willing to dispose of them. “By 1620 Virginia had already developed many of the features that were important to it two centuries later.” Explain. Virginia became one of the main producers of tobacco which allowed its economy to blossom and stabilize.
The House of Burgesses was also created which would have a long lasting impact on the colony and the rest of America. In what ways was Maryland different than Virginia? Maryland was different than Virginia because this colony allowed a safe place for Catholics to live in as well as protection.
What historical consequences resulted from the cultivation of sugar instead of tobacco in the British colonies in the West Indies? Tobacco was easily cultivated while sugar was much more complicated and needed more investment. This led to the West Indies depending on North America for their sugar production and when some English farmers were tired of being squeezed by the rich, they migrated south, settling in Carolina.
How did the English Colonize America?
Why did Carolina become a place for aristocratic whites and many black slaves? Carolina was a place for aristocratic whites because of its aristocratic founders who established the colony, and a place for many black slaves because they were shipped to Carolina to help cultivate rice, the main export of the colony.
- North Carolina was called “a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit.” Explain.
- This means that North Carolina was the modest and most independent-minded colony (along with Rhode Island) considering it was between the two aristocratic colonies of Virginia and South Carolina- the mountains of conceit.
In what ways was Georgia unique among the southern colonies? Georgia was unique because it was a buffer protecting the Carolinas from Spain and France. In return, Georgia was given a lot of funding for taking on this role. How did the political structure of the Iroquois prove to be first a strength and ultimately a weakness? They had a strong confederation with an organized system but eventually with the settlers establishing colonies they would not be able to live the lives they were used to for so long.
- Which Southern colony was the most different from the others? Explain.
- North Carolina because it was not aristocratic and was not a strong believer on slave trade.
- American Spirit Notes: The Starving Time: This is important because we are shown the severity of the starving time and what people had to go through.
Smith also talks about the savages and how they revolted and were useless to the settlers. The Great Indian Uprising: This is important because this shows a key reason in issues between the colonists and the natives. Waterhouse also discusses how Virginians wanted the Natives to become Christians since they relied on their faith for how good they were to them, but they were wrong.
- The Intolerant Act of Toleration: This shows how important religion was in the colonies, and how many there consequences were for people unwilling to respect the Catholics and other co-religionists.
- This also shows that there would have probably been many executions if the laws had been strictly enforced.
Class Notes :
Britain is becoming powerful Protestant England put into conflict with catholic Spain Elizabeth I wants to protect England and Spanish Gold and colonies Sir Francis Jake: 4,600% Return on investment, would steal money from the Spanish
Sir Walter Raleigh
Establishes 1st English colony in North America at Roanoke island Fails in 1585, tried again in 1587 Colony disappears by 1591 Notable for bringing tobacco back to England
Created to attack the British The English become the world power because they had the most powerful navy
Why did people want to leave England?
1590’s recession 1607 settlement in Jamestown Get rich quickly with the Virginia Company (1606)
Captain John Smith
He was the man who realized the colonists should be more worried about surviving than digging for gold
Lord de la Warr
Resupplies colony in 1610 Brings military into colony Starts was with Powhatan tribe
Most are gone or have migrated west by 1685
Brings tobacco to the colony
Populations increase over time but decrease greatly in the winter Large plantations that are largely spread apart (makes social events more difficult, and it is more difficult to protect yourself) Hard to maintain with such large plantations
Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid Contract: 5-7 years, promised “freedom dues”, forbidden to marry, low survival rate Over time became replaced by slaves
Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore Catholic Refuge (1649 Toleration Act)
Carolinas & Georgia
Coming from Virginia or the Sugar Islands Georgia: debtors and petty criminals Georgia acts as the buffer between Spain and England Indigo and rice are the top crops
What made Maryland a successful colony?
There are three main factors that brought settlers to the colony of Maryland. The first factor that brought settlers to Maryland was for religious freedom. The second factor was for profit from business. The third reason that helped to populate the colony was forced migration.
What is Maryland known for in history?
Pre-Colonial History – George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, applied to Charles I for a royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland. After Calvert died in April 1632, the charter for “Maryland Colony” was granted to his son, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, on June 20, 1632.
The colony was named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of King Charles I. Led by Leonard Calvert, Cecil Calvert’s younger brother, the first settlers departed from Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, on November 22, 1633 aboard two small ships, the Ark and the Dove. Their landing on March 25, 1634 at St.
Clement’s Island in southern Maryland, is commemorated by the state each year on that date as Maryland Day. This was the site of the first Catholic mass in the Colonies, with Father Andrew White leading the service. The first group of colonists consisted of 17 gentlemen and their wives, and about two hundred others, mostly indentured servants who could work off their passage.
- After purchasing land from the Yaocomico Indians and establishing the town of St.
- Mary’s, Leonard, per his brother’s instructions, attempted to govern the country under feudalistic precepts.
- Meeting resistance, in February 1635, he summoned a colonial assembly.
- In 1638, the Assembly forced him to govern according to the laws of England.
The right to initiate legislation passed to the assembly. In 1638, Calvert seized a trading post in Kent Island established by the Virginian William Claiborne. In 1644, Claiborne led an uprising of Maryland Protestants. Calvert was forced to flee to Virginia, but he returned at the head of an armed force in 1646 and reasserted proprietarial rule.
Maryland soon became one of the few predominantly Catholic regions among the English colonies in North America. Maryland was also one of the key destinations where the government sent tens of thousands of English convicts punished by sentences of transportation. Such punishment persisted until the Revolutionary War.
The founders designed the city plan of the colonial capital, St. Mary’s City, to reflect their world view. At the center of the city was the home of the mayor of St. Mary’s City. From that point, streets were laid out that created two triangles. Located at two points of the triangle extending to the west were the first Maryland state house and a jail.
- Extending to the north of the mayor’s home, the remaining two points of the second triangle were defined by a Catholic church and a school.
- The design of the city was a literal separation of church and state that reinforced the importance of religious freedom.
- The largest site of the original Maryland colony, St.
Mary’s City was the seat of colonial government until 1708. Because Anglicanism had become the official religion in Virginia, a band of Puritans in 1642 left for Maryland; they founded Providence (now called Annapolis). In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. They set up a new government prohibiting both Catholicism and Anglicanism.
- In March 1655, the 2nd Lord Baltimore sent an army under Governor William Stone to put down this revolt.
- Near Annapolis, his Roman Catholic army was decisively defeated by a Puritan army in the Battle of the Severn.
- The Puritan revolt lasted until 1658, when the Calvert family regained control and re-enacted the Toleration Act.
The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign. Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. In 1708, the seat of government was moved to Providence, renamed Annapolis in honor of Queen Anne.
- St. Mary’s City is now an archaeological site, with a small tourist center.
- Just as the city plan for St.
- Mary’s City reflected the ideals of the founders, the city plan of Annapolis reflected those in power at the turn of the 18th century.
- The plan of Annapolis extends from two circles at the center of the city – one including the State House and the other the Anglican St.
Anne’s Church (now Episcopal). The plan reflected a stronger relationship between church and state, and a colonial government more closely aligned with the Protestant church. Tobacco was the main export crop in the colonial era; it involved a great deal of hand labor, usually done by slaves, the original royal charter granted Maryland the Potomac River and territory northward to the fortieth parallel. This was found to be a problem, as the northern boundary would have put Philadelphia, the major city in Pennsylvania, within Maryland.
- The Calvert family, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania, decided in 1750 to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, to establish a boundary.
- They surveyed what became known as the Mason–Dixon Line, which became the boundary between the two colonies.
The crests of the Penn family and of the Calvert family were put at the Mason–Dixon line to mark it. Later the Mason–Dixon line was used as a boundary between free and slave states under the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
What was Maryland known for in the Southern colonies?
Maryland was originally founded to be a safe haven for Catholics and eventually became a safe haven for all Christians. After the successful cultivation of cash crops in the Chesapeake colonies, the Southern colonies were also founded to continue creating large plantations.
How did the establishment of Maryland differ from that of the earlier English colonies?
Maryland was established by Calvert as a place for English Catholics to worship in. Maryland differed because they experienced no famine, plagues, or assaults during its development.
How did the English colonies of the Chesapeake Virginia and Maryland differ from those in New England?
Beginning in the early 17th Century, English settlers scattered themselves along the eastern coast forming some of the first clearly defined regions of the United States. While both the New England colonies and the Chesapeake colonies had deep-seated aversion for the natives, they differed in their religious homogeneity and economic policies.
The New England colonies were strictly Puritan whereas the Chesapeake colonies followed no universal religion; also, while the New England colonies relied on fishing, shipbuilding, and farming, the Chesapeake colonies relied on their strong tobacco based economy. Although both regions were eventually conquered by the British and forced to merge as one nation, the New England colonies and the Chesapeake show more content While the Chesapeake colonies followed no universal religion, the New England colonies were mostly Puritans.
Puritans were religious reformists who aimed to “purify” the Anglican Church (of the Church of England). Their religion is also a very important reason for their migration to the Americas. In an effort to escape religious persecution, they fled to the east coast of the “New World”.
Being strictly religious people, the New England colonies had some very strict moral codes such as the marital arrangement. Wives are supposed to be in subjection to their husband and submit to his authority. This point was explained in Benjamin Wadsworth’s A Well-Ordered Family where he educated not only Puritan families but also those who wished to learn about their faith (Doc 6).
As a severely religious region, the New England colonies were intent on expanding and making their God proud. In an oration to a group of English Puritans, John Winthrop expressed the hope he had for their journey and in summary he said they were doing God’s will (Doc 2).
- Therefore their drive, or motivation, for building upon their already glorious colonies was to bring glory to God.
- In contrast, the Church of England was the established church in the Colony of Virginia, this means taxpayers paid for the support of the church whether or not they were supporters of the Anglican faith.
Meanwhile, in the Colony of Maryland, there were Catholics and Protestants. The Chesapeake colonies were diverse in their religious beliefs thus presenting a disunited front. The New England colonies and the Chesapeake colonies differed in their religious policies because of the different degrees of unity they displayed through